2014



Relations between the US, Europe and China in the age of China's rise: political, economic, and security dilemmas

Miloš Balabán

CEJISS 8/3, 2014


ABSTRACT: This article examines the world’s key actors: the US, EU and China, and analyses their political, economic and security relations, as well as stances on geopolitical and global economic development. Asia-Pacific is investigated as the chief determinant of the global development and also, thanks to US-China relations, as the new geopolitical centre of gravity. This research explores the contradictory nature of this relationship, which apart from being mutually beneficial in terms of economic cooperation, shows signs of distrust in political, economic and security relations, generating potential conflict. There are many approaches being promoted by these actors. The dilemma the US is currently facing in this relationship is whether to contain China as a threat or to accommodate it as an equal power. Accordingly, the US’s (potential) treatment of China influences not only Chinese performance in the Asia-Pacific region, but also has repercussions for the EU. The key question for the EU is to what extent it should take on security commitments in the Asia-Pacific region. This article concludes that, despite contradictions in bilateral relations between the ‘West’ and China, it is desirable to achieve Kissinger’s ‘co-evolution of interest.’.


You can read the article here


The Poverty of Statistics

Jan Ludvík

CEJISS 8/4, 2014


ABSTRACT: Military expenditures and the number of service personnel are the two most common features used to compare national military power. However, to what extent they reflect the real world remains a question. This article aims to provide the answer by using data on the great power conflicts of the last 160 years. The Correlates of War data are utilised to highlight that the relation between pre-war military expenditures and the numerical strength of armies on one hand and the outcome of the war on the other is blurred, to say the least. States with higher military expenditures prevailed only in six great power conflicts out of nine. Only four of them were won by state with a numerically stronger peacetime army. The case of the Franco-Prussian war is then used to illustrate that not even superiority in both categories can safely prevent a crushing defeat, much less ensure the victory. Nation’s military power stems from its ability to adapt effectively to the realities of modern warfare. That is what neither the sheer number of soldiers, nor high military expenditures can guarantee.


You can read the article here

Voluntary civic participation in the provision of defense

Libor Stejskal

Obrana a strategie (Defense and Strategy) 2/2014

ABSTRACT: The article deals with citizens’ voluntary involvement in military and paramilitary structures and activities related both to war and peacetime. At present, this kind of civic participation is marginalized, or quite suppressed in most of NATO and EU member states. However, in some countries the voluntary civic participation still plays a significant role in total defence capacity. So a decision whether to incorporate and maintain a volunteer civic element in the armed forces and in defence capacities or not remains a strategic choice to be made by governments and nations in the sphere of national defence. The article briefly defines features of the examined phenomenon; then it explores and reviews selected significant forms of citizens’ defence volunteering in Western countries, both in past and present; lastly, the perspectives of civic voluntary participation are assessed with regard to recent trends of societal evolution and defence budgets reduction.







2014




Relations between the US, Europe and China in the age of China's rise: political, economic, and security dilemmas

Miloš Balabán

CEJISS 8/3, 2014


ABSTRACT: This article examines the world’s key actors: the US, EU and China, and analyses their political, economic and security relations, as well as stances on geopolitical and global economic development. Asia-Pacific is investigated as the chief determinant of the global development and also, thanks to US-China relations, as the new geopolitical centre of gravity. This research explores the contradictory nature of this relationship, which apart from being mutually beneficial in terms of economic cooperation, shows signs of distrust in political, economic and security relations, generating potential conflict. There are many approaches being promoted by these actors. The dilemma the US is currently facing in this relationship is whether to contain China as a threat or to accommodate it as an equal power. Accordingly, the US’s (potential) treatment of China influences not only Chinese performance in the Asia-Pacific region, but also has repercussions for the EU. The key question for the EU is to what extent it should take on security commitments in the Asia-Pacific region. This article concludes that, despite contradictions in bilateral relations between the ‘West’ and China, it is desirable to achieve Kissinger’s ‘co-evolution of interest.’.


You can read the article here


The Poverty of Statistics

Jan Ludvík

CEJISS 8/4, 2014


ABSTRACT: Military expenditures and the number of service personnel are the two most common features used to compare national military power. However, to what extent they reflect the real world remains a question. This article aims to provide the answer by using data on the great power conflicts of the last 160 years. The Correlates of War data are utilised to highlight that the relation between pre-war military expenditures and the numerical strength of armies on one hand and the outcome of the war on the other is blurred, to say the least. States with higher military expenditures prevailed only in six great power conflicts out of nine. Only four of them were won by state with a numerically stronger peacetime army. The case of the Franco-Prussian war is then used to illustrate that not even superiority in both categories can safely prevent a crushing defeat, much less ensure the victory. Nation’s military power stems from its ability to adapt effectively to the realities of modern warfare. That is what neither the sheer number of soldiers, nor high military expenditures can guarantee.


You can read the article here

Voluntary civic participation in the provision of defense

Libor Stejskal

Obrana a strategie (Defense and Strategy) 2/2014

ABSTRACT: The article deals with citizens’ voluntary involvement in military and paramilitary structures and activities related both to war and peacetime. At present, this kind of civic participation is marginalized, or quite suppressed in most of NATO and EU member states. However, in some countries the voluntary civic participation still plays a significant role in total defence capacity. So a decision whether to incorporate and maintain a volunteer civic element in the armed forces and in defence capacities or not remains a strategic choice to be made by governments and nations in the sphere of national defence. The article briefly defines features of the examined phenomenon; then it explores and reviews selected significant forms of citizens’ defence volunteering in Western countries, both in past and present; lastly, the perspectives of civic voluntary participation are assessed with regard to recent trends of societal evolution and defence budgets reduction.